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    Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio), according to Wikipedia, is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

    Among the recognized benefits of doing regular aerobic exercise are:
    • Strengthening the muscles involved in respiration, to facilitate the flow of air in and out of the lungs
    • Strengthening and enlarging the heart muscle, to improve its pumping efficiency and reduce the resting heart rate, known as aerobic conditioning
    • Improving circulation efficiency and reducing blood pressure
    • Increasing the total number of red blood cells in the body, facilitating transport of oxygen
    • Improved mental health, including reducing stress and lowering the incidence of depression, as well as increased cognitive capacity.
    • Reducing the risk for diabetes. One meta-analysis has shown, from multiple conducted studies, that aerobic exercise does help lower Hb A1Clevels for type 2 diabetics.

    As a result, aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular problems. In addition, high-impact aerobic activities (such as jogging or using a skipping rope) can stimulate bone growth, as well as reduce the risk of osteoporosis for both men and women.

    In addition to the health benefits of aerobic exercise, there are numerous performance benefits:
    • Increased storage of energy molecules such as fats and carbohydrates within the muscles, allowing for increased endurance
    • Neovascularization of the muscle sarcomeres to increase blood flow through the muscles
    • Increasing speed at which aerobic metabolism is activated within muscles, allowing a greater portion of energy for intense exercise to be generated aerobically
    • Improving the ability of muscles to use fats during exercise, preserving intramuscular glycogen
    • Enhancing the speed at which muscles recover from high intensity exercise
    • Neurobiological effects: improvements in brain structural connections and increased gray matter density, new neuron growth, improved cognitive function (cognitive control and various forms of memory), and improvement or maintenance of mental health

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